Sampling methods and sizes are different for quantitative and qualitative research. In quantitative research, sampling methods include simple random sampling, stratified random sampling which occurs when the researcher knows some variables in the population that are critical for the study, cluster sampling uses natural groups that have similar characteristics, systematic sampling which can only happen when an ordered list of all members of a population is available, convenience sampling when people are in the right place at the right time, and quota sampling when the groups are preidentified by the researchers. Sample sizes tend to be bigger in quantitative research. Quantitative research is seen as more vigorous if there is a large sample size. Researchers with good understanding of parameters into sample size such as significance level, power, effect size, standard deviation and event rate, are able to calculate an informed sample size estimation and to report more clearly the rationale for applying any particular parameter value in sample size determination (Malone, 2016).
Qualtitative research sample sizes are usually smaller. Evidence indicates that sample size is matter of contention and practical guide to issues demanding consideration (Pepin 2018). Methods include purposive sampling where the researcher selects certain participants for a reason, network sampling locates samples that would otherwise be difficult to locate, and theoretical sampling where the researcher gathers relevant data for theory generation.
My quantitative research question is: Among Registered Nurses, is job retention lower when workplace incivility is present in the workplace as opposed to when it is now present over the course of one year? I would try to use a large sample size in this case. Maybe I would choose a hospital and send surverys to nurses who quit in less than a year of working to find out if their reason for quitting was due to bullying. This is probably cluster sampling.
My qualitative question is: Among registered nurses, is patient satisfaction lower when bullying and incivility is present in the workplace as opposed to when it is not present? I would use a smaller sample size in this situation. I would probably choose one unit that is known to have bullying, and interview patients over a set period of time. This would be purposeful sampling.
Malone, H. E., Nicholl, H. (2016). Fundamentals of estimating sample size. Nurse researcher, 23(5), 21-25.
Pepin, G. (2018). Reporting rigorous qualitative results: moving beyong small sample sizes. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 65(2), 77-78.