Course Objectives Met by this Case Analysis:
1. Define, identify, and assess clinical microsystems
2. Summarize strengths and improvement opportunities
3. Utilize the Dartmouth Microsystem Improvement Curriculum to support improvement
4. Identify leadership actions that support front line improvement
Program Outcome Met By This Assignment
1. Synthesize and apply theories and conceptual models from nursing and other related disciplines to facilitate clinical practice decision making
2. Integrate the use of communication skills, information systems, and standardized language in relation to clinical outcomes and continuous performance measures
3. Develop collaborative interdisciplinary relationships and partnerships to improve the health care of the cohort population
Students will read and reflect upon the case study presented below. Carefully read and review the information in the case study, and then reflect in a narrative upon the needs of the patient and the processes that must be in place surrounding this acute illness for a smooth and seamless transition for everyone involved. Construct a voice-over PowerPoint presentation consisting of a minimum of 12 slides (including your title and reference slides) that will include the following information:
1. Priority care needs of the patient at the center of the case study
2. Priority care needs of the family care providers
3. The disruption that this acute illness has caused for the patient, family members, and clinical microsystem
4. The experiential features of acuity that are apparent in this case
5. The elements that the clinical microsystem must possess in order to meet this patient’s care needs
6. Potential barriers that may exist and must be managed in order to provide that care
7. The communication strategies that were used in the delivery of care
8. Well-defined (but flexible) roles within the clinical microsystem
9. Potential strategies to plan for unexpected changes in care needs
10. The Deployment Flowchart (see page 225, Nelson text) which must include:
• Evidence-based core measure algorithms
• Structured decision making and standing orders
• Advanced access
• Reliable handoffs
• Effective communication
• Rehearsal of coordinated actions
Once you have completed the PowerPoint for this assignment, you will present it using Tegrity technology and upload your presentation into the assignment drop box. Students are expected to review the presentations posted by all of the other learners and provide feedback. This assignment is due in Module Two.
Lilly Walden describes herself as an active, athletic, and healthy woman. In her mid-forties she continues to run 2–3 miles 5 days per week. Lilly is married with three children and is employed by the local school district as a speech therapist. Lilly’s husband Tom is a pilot and he works for an international airline.
Lilly describes herself as health-conscious. Her diet is balanced, and she is a nonsmoker and drinks wine on rare social occasions. Lilly has a history of asthma, triggered by environmental changes, and it typically requires antibiotic therapy for bronchial infections 2–3 times per year. This morning, Lilly is awakened by mild intermittent right lower quadrant pain and a slight fever. Lilly applies a heating pad to the area and prepares a cup of tea that she hopes will help relieve what she believes are “gas pains.” During the next hour the pain and fever appear to be lessening and Lilly proceeds preparing herself and her children for school.
Around 10:30, Lilly notices that the pain in her right lower quadrant has returned. She is sweating and concerned that she may have a worsening fever. She contacts her supervisor and informs her that she is going to be out sick for the rest of the day. She telephones the office manager for her primary care physician, Dr. Maureen Woods, and requests an office visit.
Dr. Woods’ office manager is trained in the use of a practice-specific triage protocol, the details of which are outlined in a standardized computer algorithm. Patients with routine or non-urgent concerns are slotted into open appointment blocks, whereas more urgent issues (including Lilly’s call) trigger a telephone handoff to the nurse practitioner who is assigned to triage for that day. The nurse practitioner conducts a telephone interview and instructs Lilly to come directly to the physician’s office to be seen before the practice closes for lunch.
When Lilly arrives in the office, the medical receptionist expresses concern regarding Lilly’s appearance, escorts her directly into an examination room, and notifies the registered nurse that Lilly is in Exam Room 3. Vital signs are checked using office protocols; extra parameters (also protocol-based and pre-determined) are included in the nursing assessment due to Lilly’s poor appearance. Her temperature is 102°F, and her heart rate is rapid. Lilly is noticeably sweating and has her hands placed over her right lower quadrant. The nurse asks the medical assistant to interrupt Dr. Woods who is in the next examining room seeing another patient so that she can evaluate Lilly due to her level of distress.
Dr. Woods excuses herself from her current patient and arrives at Lilly’s room to complete a focused examination. Dr. Woods informs Lilly that based upon her symptoms, she will need to be transported to the emergency room for evaluation of her pain and asks if her husband is in town or away on assignment. Lilly tells Dr. Woods that her husband’s return flight landed about an hour ago and he should be reachable by cell phone. Dr. Woods obtains Lilly’s consent for transport, instructs the nurse to stay with Lilly, asks the medical assistant to telephone for an ambulance, and then excuses herself to notify the emergency room of Lilly’s condition and her pending arrival. Other patients are informed by the office manager (also per a rehearsed protocol) that Dr. Woods is managing an emergent situation, but they will be seen as soon as possible. These patients are given the option of rescheduling if they are unable to wait or being seen by the nurse practitioner assigned to triage who will take patients in the order of their prescheduled appointment.
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In the emergency room, further handoffs and protocol-based interventions are enacted. Oxygen is applied. Lilly is informed that she is not to take in any food or fluids by mouth and an intravenous is started in her left arm so that she can receive fluids, pain medication, and anti-nausea medication. The surgical resident assigned to the emergency department introduces himself to Lilly and her husband who arrives understandably concerned regarding Lilly’s condition. The doctor completes his exam, consults with the attending surgeon, and communicates with the members of the health care team. The doctor informs Lilly and her husband that Lilly has appendicitis and recommends surgery immediately in order to prevent the complications of a ruptured appendix. Lilly signs the consent form, and the members of the emergency room proceed through the established preoperative protocols that are standard for patients with Lilly’s diagnosis. Lilly is obviously concerned, but Tom reassures her that he will make arrangements for the children to receive care. Tom contacts his sister and makes arrangements for her to be at his house when the children arrive home and contacts Lilly’s supervisor to update her on Lilly’s status.
Lilly’s surgery is completed without issues. After a brief stay in the post-anesthesia care unit, she is transferred to the medical surgical floor where she is admitted for an overnight stay. The following morning, Lilly’s nurse observes that Lilly is coughing but having difficulty producing sputum. The nurse also hears crackles in Lilly’s left lower lung. The nurse contacts the resident on call, and a chest x-ray is completed which shows that Lilly has a left lower lobe pneumonia. She is started on a course of antibiotics and medications to improve her breathing, and per hospital protocol, a referral is made to the pulmonary specialist who concurs with the pneumonia diagnosis. The presence of the pneumonia results in Lilly’s hospital stay to be extended for two additional days.
A template-specific discharge summary is sent to Dr. Woods so she will have full knowledge of Lilly’s hospital stay and of specialists’ postoperative recommendations when she meets Lilly in a follow-up visit in the coming week. Lilly and Tom are given three appointment cards: one for an appointment with the surgeon, one with the pulmonary specialist, and one with Dr. Woods before Lilly is discharged from the hospital. Additionally, several days prior to discharge, Lilly and Tom are invited to attend interdisciplinary rounds. During that meeting, a recommendation is made for Lilly to receive nursing services at home to monitor the pneumonia that Lilly developed postoperatively. In the six weeks that follow, Lilly’s condition slowly improves, and although she is quite fatigued, she is sure that she is making steady progress and improvements. Dr. Woods validates Lilly’s progress and reassures her that she will make a full recovery.
In a professional career, one may be called upon to conduct research and deliver findings in professional settings. No matter how extensive the research or accurate the conclusions, a weak presentation can undermine an argument. A presentation is a tool to assist in making an argument. When creating presentations, students develop skills in researching an issue, synthesizing the information, organizing data logically, and presenting findings in an effective manner.
Principles of an Effective Presentation:
• You may utilize a product such as Microsoft’s PowerPoint or Google Presentation to create your presentations.
• There are various template designs that you can find on the web for your presentation. However, first consider your presentation from the perspective of your audience prior to selecting a specific style. Distracting backgrounds, large blocks of text, all uppercase fonts, elaborate font styles, grammatical errors, and misspellings are distracting. Be consistent with the style of text, bullets, and sub-points in order to support a powerful presentation that allows your content to be the focus.
• Each slide should include your key point(s). Do not place large blocks of text on the visual. Your presentation is not a means of presenting a short paper. In an actual presentation you would not “read” from your slides but rather use them as prompts.
• Any notes or narration you would use in delivering this presentation to a group should be listed in the “notes” section of the slide.
• References should be listed at the bottom of the slide in slightly smaller text.
• Use clip art, AutoShapes, pictures, charts, tables, and diagrams to enhance but not overwhelm your content.
• Be mindful of the intended audience and seek to assess the presentation’s effectiveness by gauging audience comprehension (when possible).
• Record your narration using Integrity and then upload for the class to view.
Below are some links that offer helpful tips and examples for developing your presentations: