reading the article titled “The role of leadership in managing emergencies and disasters”

Unit VI Article Critique

After reading the article titled “The role of leadership in managing emergencies and disasters” found in your reading assignment for this unit, you will write an article critique.

Demiroz, F., & Kapucu, N. (2012). The role of leadership in managing emergencies and disasters. European Journal of Economic & Political Studies, 5(1), 91-101. Retrieved from n.aspx?direct=true&db=tsh&AN=84565993&site=ehost-live&scope=site

In your article critique, you will answer the following questions related to the article:

• What is the authors’ main point?

• Who is the authors’ intended audience?

• According to the authors, what leadership characteristics or competencies should a successful emergency manager possess in order to successfully manage risk during an emergency or disaster?

• Do you agree with the article’s findings? Why, or why not?

• Do you believe that the evidence presented in the article supports the article’s main point? Why, or why not?

• Describe what could happen during an emergency or disaster if an emergency manager does not possess strong leadership characteristics or competencies.

Your article critique should consist of at least two pages, not counting the title page and reference page. You should utilize at least two references, one of which can be the article you are critiquing. You may also use your textbook as a reference. All citations and references should utilize proper APA formatting.


You are an emergency manager, and your community has been impacted by an F5 tornado. The damage is extensive, and many homes and businesses have been totally destroyed. The community is looking to emergency management personnel for help in restoring a sense of normalcy. What can you as an emergency manager do to help individuals within the community to begin psychological healing after such an event? What are some of the local resources that may be needed to help begin this healing?

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words. No references or citations are necessary.

Need original and unplagiarized work, please do not accept if cannot return quality work. Please read assignment fully

Week VI study guide is attached for guidance.


MSE 6301, Risk Management 1

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VI Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

1. Analyze the concept of risk within emergency management. 1.1 Dissect leadership characteristics needed for addressing risk within emergency management.

Course/Unit Learning Outcomes

Learning Activity


Unit Lesson Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Demiroz & Kapucu article Unit VI Article Critique

Reading Assignment Chapter 8: Leadership in Managing Emergencies and Crises Chapter 9: Risk Perception and Risk Communication Additional Reading Assignment(s): In order to access the following resources, click the link below: Demiroz, F., & Kapucu, N. (2012). The role of leadership in managing emergencies and disasters. European

Journal of Economic & Political Studies, 5(1), 91-101. Retrieved from n.aspx?direct=true&db=tsh&AN=84565993&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Unit Lesson Leadership and management strategies can be difficult, depending on the types of situations that present themselves in the midst of an emergency. Good leadership characteristics are not inherited, but can be developed through previous experiences, education, training, and development within the models and frameworks for emergency management crisis situations in the field. Ineffective leadership practices and consequences are actually interrelated. An ineffective leader can create untimely decisions for units, disseminate inaccurate information, and risk credibility of the overall operation in the incident-command area. Leadership skills are not only designated for the emergency or the emergency manager, but also those who are subordinates, handling peers in other organizations (Kapucu & Özerdem, 2013; Peerbolte & Collins, 2013). Effective leadership has the ability to create an environment of stability, trust, encouragement, and belief in the system. In addition, effectives leadership creates a vision for the future. The effective leader is oftentimes associated with transformational leadership skills. This type of leader is able to determine what types of skills are needed to address the emergency, provide the communication necessary for safety and security, and is able to stimulate others to think outside the traditional norms of thinking. Authentic feedback will also be a good indicator of what worked well during a disaster and what provided room for opportunity (Kapucu & Özerdem, 2013; Peerbolte & Collins, 2013). A good leader will show the initiative to promote change, accept any shortcomings that may have taken place, and be able to facilitate that change within the organization in order to progress. In order to be an effective leader, the emergency manager must be able to

UNIT VI STUDY GUIDE Effective Leadership, Risk Communication, and Risk Assessment

MSE 6301, Risk Management 2



build trusting and long-lasting relationships at multiple levels. These relationships should be formed with the local, state, federal, and other governmental officials. Also, further relationships should be built with community stakeholders, the American Red Cross, Salvation Army, and local public officials in an effort to use multiple resources in the context of emergencies, disasters, hazards, and other vulnerabilities that will impact the community (Kapucu & Özerdem, 2013). People that are involved in disasters look to their leaders for answers. Community residents that are impacted by disasters have an expectation that leaders will minimize or eliminate the adverse impacts upon their families, homes, and community organizations. During short-term emergencies, emergency management should be able to fulfill the roles of leaders who are “in charge” of the situation (Kapucu & Özerdem, 2013). Quick and successful response is needed in order to mitigate life-safety issues. Long-term situations will require additional training, education, and competencies that encourage future thinking for building long- lasting relationships, leaders with the ability to envision the future of disaster and emergency management, and utilizing the intellectual capital of personnel for high performance leadership in disastrous situations (Gantt & Gantt, 2012). Catastrophic disasters are unpredictable and can cause disruptions in the communication systems, create issues concerning transportation and delivery of supplies, cause evacuation route closures, and cause major disruptions in the leadership decision-making process. Routine events, emergencies, or disasters do not require intricate cooperation, although every disaster requires cooperation. On the other hand, each disaster is unique, and that requires the leader to be flexible and capable of handling both catastrophic and routine disasters within the community (Gantt & Gantt, 2012; Kapucu & Özerdem, 2013; Peerbolte & Collins, 2013). Effective communication is one of the principle foundations of disaster management. Whether training, exercises, or the actual disaster occurring, there is an immediate impact upon the communication system. Choosing the right form of communication for the specific disaster is imperative to the success of the overall operation. Communication is not only limited to actively speaking or the use of a radio; active listening is also a key element of communication. First responders arriving on the scene are not only there to assist with assessments in the field, but also to listen to the people who have been involved in the incident and be able to pass the information along to those in the hospitals, command post, and those who may need to be summoned to the scene for special-needs populations. In order to manage a crisis, effective leadership and communication skills are needed in order to minimize the dynamics of disasters (Kapucu & Özerdem, 2013). Crisis management is often considered a combination of different thoughts, ideas, dynamics, and having the capability to minimize the damage that disasters can cause. Depending on the elements of time, control issues, threat level, and constraints on response options, there are basic communication skills that are involved and that will assist in promoting an awareness of the issues surrounding the disaster scene. Good communication from leadership and transparency are key elements in becoming familiar with the surrounding communities and local jurisdictions that may be impacted by the same disaster (Peerbolte & Collins, 2013). The emergency manager should consider it a best practice to become involved within the community, get to know community stakeholders, and become familiar with key leaders in other communities who may be able to assist during a crisis. In order to handle risk-based situations, it is important to have training, have educational projects stimulating thoughts and ideas for managers, and have decision-based exercises and tools that will allow creative thoughts and ideas from those who are in leadership positions (Gantt & Gantt, 2012; Kapucu & Özerdem, 2013; Peerbolte & Collins, 2013). One of the best methods to effectively deliver a message is through face-to-face verbal communication. This allows the message to be delivered, be thought out well during the communication, and allows the other person to receive the message, ask questions, and ensure the message being delivered has the correct information. Although face-to-face communication is the best form of delivering a message, it might not be available during a crisis (Kapucu & Özerdem, 2013). Thus, the use of radios, computer tablets, and other technological advances such as smartphones makes communication easier, but these also can fail during a disaster should the networking systems be collapsed. Other barriers that may impact the delivery of a message may include the lack of training, unfamiliarity with the use of technology, monetary resources, and the lack of participation from leadership. In order for effective communication and message delivering to occur, there must be information gathering, processing, and disseminating the message. The advancement of technology has also made it possible for emergency managers to become more effective with disaster management and communicating with those in key leadership roles for assistance prior to and during disasters (Kapucu & Özerdem, 2013; Peerbolte & Collins, 2013).

MSE 6301, Risk Management 3



Dead body management is an area that is often overlooked in the event of an emergency or disaster. There is often not much training surrounding dead body management or policies written about it. Emergency managers need to be aware of legal implications of dead body management, including how to handle the deceased while being cognizant of their community’s religious beliefs. The risk to the general public is actually minimal since they do not make it a practice of touching dead bodies after an event. Identification of dead bodies is done by matching items, identification, and belongings to the deceased. It may take several days for proper identification to occur, but emergency managers should be prepared to handle situations with distressed family members when it comes to body identification. Emergency managers also need to take into consideration the privacy of both the victims and victims’ family members. Journalists, or outside members who are not specifically dealing with dead body management, should be kept clear of the scene. Soon after the disaster has taken place, the emergency manager should make a decision about whether or not release any information pertaining to the number of deceased. It is relevant information to the public, especially if the disaster is extensive. Finally, one of the issues the emergency manager faces is complacency. The feelings of self-confidence, “this disaster will not happen in our community,” and ignoring danger signs from previous disasters are some of the challenges that need to be addressed in order to be successful in disaster management. Public complacency may be attributed to the lack of preparedness, lack of education regarding disasters within the community, and political leaders perhaps feeling funds can be allocated for other resources and measures in the community other than disaster preparedness. In order to maintain a positive image with the community, the emergency manager should consider monthly meetings, open forums, and inviting the press to cover training and educational events. One of the best mediums for disseminating a message to the community is through the use of the media. The emergency manager should establish a positive working relationship with the media in an effort to not only promote life-safety standards, but also to have the media as an alliance during a disaster in order to maintain accurate information. Inter-organizational management, networking, and establishing relationships are integral avenues for the emergency manager to consider and use as tools for more effective crisis communication (Gantt & Gantt, 2012; Kapucu & Özerdem, 2013; Peerbolte & Collins, 2013).

References Gantt, P., & Gantt, R. (2012). Disaster psychology: Dispelling the myths of panic. Professional Safety, 57(8),

42-49. Retrieved from n.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=78365325&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Kapucu, N., & Özerdem, A. (2013). Managing emergencies and crises. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett. Peerbolte, S. L., & Collins, M. L. (2013). Disaster management and critical thinking skills of local emergency

managers: Correlations with age, gender, education, and years in occupation. Disasters, 37(1), 48- 60. Retrieved from n.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=83928099&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Suggested Reading In order to access the following resource, click the link below: There are many myths associated with disaster victims and psychological responses that may take place after a disaster. This article dispels some of the myths regarding rioting, looting, and other issues that may arise during a disaster. Gantt, P., & Gantt, R. (2012). Disaster psychology: Dispelling the myths of panic. Professional Safety, 57(8),

42-49. Retrieved from n.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=78365325&site=ehost-live&scope=site