help prepare your community for such challenges.

Unit VIII Research Paper

As discussed in this unit, emergency managers will face local and global challenges in the future. Imagine that you are the emergency manager for your community, and part of your job is to help prepare your community for such challenges.

For this assignment, you will choose the natural disaster to which your community is the most prone, and you will compose a research paper consisting of the following elements:

• Include an introduction.

• Include information about the natural disaster you have chosen, including information about the local and global challenges that this disaster can cause for emergency managers.

• Include an analysis of the risks associated with the selected disaster within the community.

• List your community’s historical background for the disaster you have chosen. Include demographics and geographic region information for your community.

• List a description of a risk-reduction plan for emergency management within your community, which will consist of the following points:

o key issues for beginning the risk reduction plan;

o key stakeholders involved in the plan;

o types of communications and communication systems involved in the plan;

o multi-jurisdictional response initiatives;

o training and exercises;

o and description of how your plan will be maintained in your community,

o including the maintaining of stakeholder buy-in and funding.

• Include a reference section consisting of at least three sources, one of which can be your textbook.

***Community – Savannah, Georgia. Georgia regularly faces many types of natural disasters including hurricanes, tornadoes, severe storms, wildfires and floods. The most common type of natural disasters in Georgia are thunderstorms.

Your paper should follow APA guidelines for formatting of all resources, both in-text and as references. Your paper should be at least four pages in length, not including the title page and reference page.


Thinking about the information that we covered during this course, what are some of the tools that you have acquired in this course that can be applicable to mitigation and preparedness practices within your community? Do you believe that this course can help you make a positive social change for addressing disaster and emergency issues that may arise within your community?

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words. No references or citations are necessary.

Need original and unplagiarized work, please do not accept if cannot return quality work. Please read assignment fully

Week VIII study guide is attached for guidance.


MSE 6301, Risk Management 1

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VIII Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

1. Analyze the concept of risk within emergency management. 1.1 Analyze the risks associated with the selected disaster within a community.

3. Assess emergency planning strategies aimed to reduce risk.

3.1 Discuss the challenges emergency managers will face locally and globally in the future. 3.2 Describe a risk reduction plan for community emergency management.

4. Examine how disaster events in U.S. history have altered the traditional risk perceptions of

emergency management. 4.1 Explain the historical disaster events for a local community. 4.2 Discuss future consideration for community risk reduction.

Course/Unit Learning Outcomes

Learning Activity


Unit Lesson Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Unit VIII Research Paper


Unit Lesson Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Unit VIII Research Paper


Unit Lesson Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Unit VIII Research Paper


Unit Lesson Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Unit VIII Research Paper


Unit Lesson Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Unit VIII Research Paper

Reading Assignment Chapter 12: International Actors and Perspectives Chapter 13: Future Directions in Emergency and Crisis Management

Unit Lesson Nations and countries across the globe have faced acts of terrorism and disasters. The increase in terrorist activities and natural disasters globally has prompted officials and emergency management personnel to collaborate and coordinate openly and internationally, concerning disaster response. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) are two examples of

UNIT VIII STUDY GUIDE International Disaster Management and Future Predictors for Emergency Management

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the international, regional, and security organizations collaborating together in an effort to manage the disaster responses that may occur globally (Kapucu & Özerdem, 2013). Organizations must take into account their direct roles in response, communication, and policies that are adopted for international disaster response. One of the main areas of concern is the coordination of disaster relief resources internationally. In the past, the lack of communication has been the major roadblock for coordination of efforts internationally. Emergency management must be willing to create an effective means of communication in order to concentrate their efforts on areas impacted by disasters. Many of the countries that are impacted by disasters do not have the financial stability to support efforts in preparing, purchasing, nor training and educating community residents regarding disaster and emergency management. Thus, it is imperative to have the global stakeholders become more involved in the assistance of disaster relief (Garnett & Moore, 2010; Kapucu & Özerdem, 2013). The international disaster relief effort is a team-concentrated effort, but there are independent companies, stakeholders, and humanitarian components that are involved in the overall relief efforts. A network of communication must exist in order to coordinate the delivery of supplies, staging, operations, logistics, and command that will be needed in order to address disaster-related issues. Situational awareness regarding the organizations’ involvement in disaster relief is important to the success of the operation (Garnett & Moore, 2010; Kapucu & Özerdem, 2013). Inter-organizational structuring, communication, and collaboration are necessary to assist emergency managers in identifying the specific types of relief that will be needed in times of recovery activities. Some of the barriers that are associated with the coordination of efforts internationally range from the lack of coordination and communication, the environment and structures associated with the country where the disaster response is required, dissolved relationships over extended periods of time, and being able to acquire donors for monetary assistance. Global and inter-jurisdictional conflicts can occur with the lack of communication and coordination for the disaster management events (Garnett & Moore, 2010; Kapucu & Özerdem, 2013). Depending on the type of disaster, intensity of the impact from the disaster, and the scope needed in determining the disaster’s overall impact on life normalcy, relief coordination will be established and agencies notified. Disaster relief coordination is based upon the number of lives lost, the extent of the damage to property, and the capacity in which the government will be able to function in the aftermath of the disaster. As previously mentioned in another lesson, the level of trust and communication between organizations, emergency managers, and other stakeholders is important for the functionality of disaster relief efforts to work well within the network. An example of creating trusting relationships is the United States’ role in international disaster relief assistance. Although the U.S. is seen as a superpower, holding many resources and having the ability to send monetary funding for support, there is a high level of skepticism from poorer nations, feeling the U.S. is only assisting in the relief efforts for a political “gain” or “cause.” Thus, there needs to be communication and collaboration in the disaster preparedness communities internationally in an effort to minimize the doubts and fears presented by other resource-rich nations imposing upon less-fortunate countries impacted by disasters (Garnett & Moore, 2010; Kapucu & Özerdem, 2013). Some of the key stakeholders in international emergency management include the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). These organizations not only target woman and children in devastated areas, but also collaborate with other disaster relief organizations in an effort to provide sanitation, food, vaccination, sheltering, overall public health, humanitarian aid, and personnel. It is also important to note there are many single entities that are not directly related to the relief efforts collaborated by the UN, which can cause issues with the communication and delivery of goods and services (Garnett & Moore, 2010; Kapucu & Özerdem, 2013). Normally, the UN agencies work together under one command and are able to deliver the necessary items to the impacted locations. On the other hand, the single units that are working under another form of command structure that is not autonomous are made up of interdependent agencies, causing communication failure that will impede the progress of the disaster relief due to an uncoordinated response. Partnerships are the key role in the future of disaster responses globally (Kapucu & Özerdem, 2013). The increase in the environmental and technological hazards that are being experienced globally present a true risk to the communities they impact. The advent of technology, hazard-vulnerability planning, and the ability to track storms and predict disasters more accurately will continue to be safety measures continually improving the safety of millions. One of the differences in the way emergency management is functioning today is from the lessons learned in the past (Kapucu & Özerdem, 2013). The after action reports (AAR) assist in planning, preparing, mitigating, and adding the recovery component to plans that are involved in

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disaster and emergency crises. Emergency management will further be changing based on the willingness of agencies, organizations, and corporations to collaborate, communicate, and work alongside one another in building relationships, partnerships, and forming networks in a less hierarchical structure (Garnett & Moore, 2010; Kapucu & Özerdem, 2013). One of the many other challenges that emergency managers will face in the future will be the global climate changes occurring. The continual melting of the ice caps, warmer temperatures, sea levels rising, and the increasing risk of dangerous storms will all be key areas in the advent of the emergency management field having to refine approaches to safety, property, and rescue policies and approaches (Garnett & Moore, 2010; Kapucu & Özerdem, 2013). Population growth will also be a concern for emergency management where many will be settling in uninhabited areas where previously there was no opportunity for people to reside. Thus, being able to access these areas with emergency equipment, food, and other supplies will create greater challenges for the emergency workers and planners. Included in these remote areas may be the concern of language barriers. These newly established areas might be influenced by several different languages, and addressing the language barriers with emergency information translation will need to occur (Kapucu & Özerdem, 2013). The roles of stakeholders within the local communities will also need to increase. Community leadership will have to allow local, state, and federal agencies to participate in disaster planning meetings and have a clear understanding of what roles each of those agencies and stakeholders will have to become an integral part of future disasters. The most effective emergency management system/leader will be one integrating the training, exercises, communication, community-based development concerning transparency in planning for disasters, and incorporating moral and ethical decision making into the overall practice of emergency management (Garnett & Moore, 2010; Kapucu & Özerdem, 2013). A combination of knowledge, experience, education, proactivity in addressing hazard vulnerabilities, collaboration, and being intuitive with the lessons learned from past disasters will assist the future of emergency management to progress as a profession (Garnett & Moore, 2010; Kapucu & Özerdem, 2013).

References Garnett, J. D., & Moore, M. (2010). Enhancing disaster recovery: Lessons learned from exemplary

international disaster management practices. Journal of Homeland Security & Emergency Management, 7(1), 1- 20.

Kapucu, N., & Özerdem, A. (2013). Managing emergencies and crises. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett.