Pathophysiology of Cardiovascular Disorders Analysis

Cardiovascular System, Part 1

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in 2008, over 616,000 people in the United States died of complications related to cardiovascular disorders. This accounts for approximately 25% of deaths in the United States (CDC, 2012). Cardiovascular disorders are also one of the leading causes of illness and death in the world. As an advanced practice nurse, you can help lower the prevalence of these disorders by providing patient education and preventive care services. As you diagnose and recommend care for patients, you must understand the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders as well as factors that increase risks.

This week you examine the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders. You also explore the impact of patient factors on cardiovascular disorders.

Reference
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Heart disease facts. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/facts.htm

Learning Objectives

Students will:

Analyze the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders

Evaluate the impact of patient factors on the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders

Analyze the relationship between hypertension and dyslipidemia to cardiovascular alterations

Compare the pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis

Evaluate the impact of patient factors on chronic venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis

Evaluate clinical considerations of chronic venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis

Understand and apply key terms, concepts, and principles related to alterations of the veins and arteries

Photo Credit: sisu/RooM/Getty Images

Required Readings

Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Chapter 23, “Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems”

This chapter examines the circulatory system, heart, systemic circulation, and lymphatic system to establish a foundation for normal cardiovascular function. It focuses on the structure and function of various parts of the circulatory system to illustrate normal blood flow.

Chapter 24, “Alterations of Cardiovascular Function” 
This chapter presents the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and treatment of various cardiovascular disorders. It focuses on diseases of the veins and arteries, disorders of the heart wall, heart disease, and shock.


Chapter 25, “Alterations of Cardiovascular Function in Children”
This chapter examines cardiovascular disorders that affect children. It distinguishes congenital heart disease from acquired cardiovascular disorders.

Hammer, G. D., & McPhee, S. J. (2019). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 11, “Cardiovascular Disorders: Vascular Disease”
This chapter begins with an overview of the vascular component of the cardiovascular system and how the cardiovascular system is normally regulated. It then describes three common vascular disorders: atherosclerosis, hypertension, and shock.

Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012a). Alterations of cardiovascular functions PPT lecture. Baltimore, MD: Author.

This media presentation outlines common alterations of cardiovascular function, including disorders of the veins and arteries.

Optional Resources

American Heart Association. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/

Million Hearts. (2012). Retrieved from http://millionhearts.hhs.gov/index.html

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/

Cardiovascular Disorders

Veins and arteries are vital elements of the cardiovascular system. They carry the blood supply through the body and are essential for proper function. Sometimes veins and arteries malfunction, resulting in cardiovascular disorders. Malfunctions of arteries and veins are similar to malfunctions of a water hose. Consider the structure and function of a hose. A tap releases water, which then travels through the hose and comes out the other end. If the hose has been dormant for several months, dirt and rusty particles might build up inside, resulting in a restricted flow of water. Similarly, buildup of plaque inside the coronary arteries restricts blood flow and leads to disorders such as coronary heart disease. This disease is one of the most common cardiovascular disorders, and according to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (2011), is the leading cause of death for men and women in the United States. In this Discussion, you examine the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders such as coronary heart disease.

To Prepare

Review this week’s media presentation on alterations of cardiovascular functions, as well as Chapter 24 in the Huether and McCance text. Identify the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders.

Select one patient factor: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Consider how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders.

Select one of the following alterations of cardiovascular disorders: peripheral arterial disease, myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, or dysrhythmia. Think about how hypertension or dyslipidemia can lead to the alteration you selected.

ASSIGNMENT 1a

WRITE a description of the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders, including how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology. Then, explain how hypertension or dyslipidemia can lead to the alteration you selected for patients with the factor you identified.

Reference
National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. (2011). What is coronary heart disease? Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topi…

Assignment 1b: Disorders of the Veins and Arteries

Advanced practice nurses often treat patients with vein and artery disorders such as chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT). While the symptoms of both disorders are noticeable, these symptoms are sometimes mistaken for signs of other conditions, making the disorders difficult to diagnose. Nurses must examine all symptoms and rule out other potential disorders before diagnosing and prescribing treatment for patients. In this Assignment, you explore the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of CVI and DVT.

To Prepare

Review the section “Diseases of the Veins” (pp. 598-599) in Chapter 23 of the Huether and McCance text. Identify the pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis. Consider the similarities and differences between these disorders.

Select a patient factor different from the one you selected in this week’s Discussion: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Think about how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of CVI and DVT. Reflect on how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on the factor you selected.

Review the “Mind Maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in the Week 2 Learning Resources. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct two mind maps—one for chronic venous insufficiency and one for venous thrombosis. Consider the epidemiology and clinical presentation of both chronic venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis.

To Complete

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:

Compare the pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis. Describe how venous thrombosis is different from arterial thrombosis.

Explain how the patient factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of CVI and DVT. Describe how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on the factor you selected.

Construct two mind maps—one for chronic venous insufficiency and one for deep venous thrombosis. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation, as well as the diagnosis and treatment you explained in your paper.

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