Career Development and Counseling PSYG 542
Career Information, Career Counseling and Career Development,
Duane Brown, (2016)
Articulate an understanding of the impact of the global economy on work in the U. S.
Explain how people view work as a part of their lives and the lives of others.
Form a personal view of their own career development.
Show familiarity with the basic terminology used in career development.
Demonstrate the role career development programs can play in the drive for social justice in the U. S.
Demonstrate knowledge of the historical roots of career development.
Brown adopts Sears’s (1982) definition of Career development: a lifelong process involving psychological, sociological, educational, economic, and physical factors as well as chance factors that interact to influence the career of an individual. Brown also adds culture to Sears’s list of factor that influence career development
Career Interventions Defined
Career intervention is the broadest term and subsumes individual, small group, large group and organizational career development instruments. It’s a deliberate act aimed at enhancing some aspects of a person’s career development.
Career Guidance –organized, systematic efforts designed to influence various aspects of the career development of a client group such as high school or college students.
Career Education is a systematic attempt to influence the career development of students and adults through various types of educational strategies.
Career counseling occurs both individually and in groups and may deal both with personal issues and specific career problem. Career counseling is more likely to be regulated by codes of ethics and legislation at the state level.
Career information is sometimes referred to as labor market information (ONet – online system developed by the U.S. Department of Labor).
Career coaching is, usually a one on one intervention and is often initiated by managers to improve individual employees functioning and for the business to identify the talent it needs to be successful.
Ethical and Legal Guidelines and the Competencies Needed for Career Development Practice
Identify ethical principles that govern career development practitioners’ work
Outline the requirements for the Master Career Counselor, Master Career Development Professional, and Career Development Facilitator credentials
Identify the major competencies needed by career development professionals.
NACE’s Principles for Ethical Professional Practice
Are designed to provide everyone involved in the career development and employment process with two basic precepts on which to base their efforts: maintain a recruitment process that is fair and equitable; support informed and responsible decision making by candidates.
1. Practice reasonable, responsible, and transparent behavior
2. Act without bias …
3. Ensure equitable access …
4. Comply with laws …
5. Protect confidentiality of …
National Career Development Association (NCDA)
The fundamental principles of professional ethical behavior include:
• Autonomy, or fostering the right to control the direction of one’s life;
• Non-maleficence, or avoiding actions that cause harm;
• Beneficence, or working for the good of the individual and society by promoting mental health and well being;
• Objectivity, or treating individuals equitably;
• Accountability, or honoring commitments and keeping promises, including fulfilling one’s responsibilities of trust in professional relationships; and
• Veracity, or dealing truthfully with individuals with whom career development professionals come into contact.
Career Development Theory
Individual and Group Counseling Skills
Program Management and Implementation
Coaching, Consultation and Performance Improvement
Master Career Counselor Criteria
Member of NCDA for 2 years
Master’s Degree in Counseling or related field from accredited institution
3 years of post Master’s experience in career counseling
NCC credential or state-level license as a counselor or psychologist
3 credits in each of 6 NCDA competencies
Supervised practicum or 2 years of post master’s experience under a certified supervisor
Document that at least 50% of current job duties are directly related to career counseling
Master Career Development Professional Criteria
Member of NCDA for 2 years
Master’s Degree in Counseling or related field from accredited institution
Complete 3 years of post-master’s experience in career development experience, training, teaching, program development or materials development
Document that at least 50% of current job duties are directly related to career counseling
Career Development Facilitator
Complete 120 hours of training in a specified course of study
Possess one of the following:
graduate degree plus 1 year of career development work experience
Bachelor’s degree plus 2 years of career development work experience
High school diploma plus approximately 4 years of career development work experience
ACA Code of Ethics
Principle 1: Above All, Do No Harm
Principle 2: Be Competent
Principle 3: Respect Clients’ Rights to Chose Their Own Directions
Principle 4: Honor Your Responsibilities.
Principle 5: Make Accurate Public Statements
Principle 6: Respect Counselors and Practitioners from other professions
Principle 7: Advocate for Clients in Need
Person-Environment Congruence (PEC) Theories: Frank Parson, Theory of Work Adjustment, John Holland, a Values-Based Approach, and their Applications
The theories in this chapter are traditional theories
Once characterized as trait and factor theories because needs, values and personality types were derived via statistical techniques know as factor analysis.
Theories of career choice and development serve 3 functions:
Facilitate the understanding of the forces that influence career choice and development
Stimulate research that will help to better clarify career choice and the development process
Provide a guide to practice in the absence of empirical guidelines
John Holland created a hexagonal model that shows the relationship between the personality types and environments
Those whose career concerns appear to be limited to identifying a major, an occupation, a job, or leisure activities
Those who do not appear to have barriers to exploration and decision making, such as irrational beliefs, poor self-efficacy, poor self-concept or ineffective decision-making styles
Those who are in need of assistance at specific choice points (such as needing to declare a major, get a new job, or choose an occupation) but not long-term, developmental work
Holland’s approach is most appropriate for:
According to Holland, personality develops as a result of the interaction of
the activities to which the individual is exposed
and the interests and competencies that grow out of the activity
Holland posits the following personality types:
Realistic people deal with the environment in an objective, concrete and physically manipulative manner
Investigative people deal with the environment by using intellect—manipulating ideas, words and symbols.
Artistic individuals deal with the environment by creating art forms and products.
Social people deal with the environment by using skills to interact with and relate to others.
Enterprising people cope with the environment by expressing adventurous, dominant, enthusiastic and impulsive qualities.
Conventional people deal with the environment by choosing goals and activities that carry social approval.
Holland’s Theory of Types
Gaining Self – Understanding
Assess a person’s ability, interests, values, and personality by examining six types.
Obtaining Knowledge about the World of Work
Holland’s six categories provide a means for classifying and learning about occupations (the environment).
Integrating Information about Self and the World of Work
Some people may resemble one Holland Type, whereas others may be quite
undifferentiated and have interests and competencies across all 6 types
The closer the types are to each other on the chart, the more consistent their
Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA) (Dawis and colleagues)
This model first describes the person’s (worker’s) characteristics followed by a description of the work environment’s characteristics. The third part deals with the result of the interaction between the person and work environment
The major value of TWA for career practitioners is to gain a better understanding of the interaction between workers and their place of employment
Not widely practiced because of its complexity
Three types of abilities:
Visual acuity—speed and perception of detail
Cognitive –comprehension, memory and reasoning with words and numbers
3. Motor or psychomotor—dexterity, speed, eye-hand coordination.
Maintenance and Adjustment
Once person takes job, correspondence between work and the work environment begins. The worker responds to demands of workplace with what Dawis terms:
Celerity (quickness of responding)
Pace (intensity of response)
Rhythm (pattern of response)
Endurance (duration of response)
The result of this process is varying degrees of job satisfaction
Basic Assumptions of TWA
People have 2 types of needs
Biological (or survival)
Psychological (social acceptance)
2nd assumption is that work environments have “requirements” that are analogous to the needs of individuals.
When the needs of individuals in an environment (work) and those of the environment are satisfied, correspondence exists.
WORK ADJUSTMENT THEORY
Minnesota Importance Questionnaire
Minnesota Job Description Questionnaire
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire
Minnesota Satisfactoriness Scales
Beliefs that are experienced by the individual as standards of how he or she should function
2 types of values:
Cultural and role related
Norms are a group’s counterpart of an individual’s values. Work groups develop norms (standards of behavior)
Norms have 2 dimensions: public and private
Some research has indicated that cultural values seem to be more prevalent in some racial and ethnic groups than in others.
Contrast the impact of culture, family, and neighborhood on career choices of the following groups:
a. Average middle class, American family
b. Urban single parent, low income family
c. Recent Asian American immigrant family
d. Wealthy suburban professional family
e. African American youth (middle class)
f. Native American woman (rural)
g. Recent Mexican American immigrant (undocumented)
Developmental Theories and Their Applications: Donald Super and Linda Gottfredson
Focus on the biological, psychological, sociological and cultural factors that influence career choice
Super’s Five Life and Career Development Stages
1. Growth (Age: birth – 14) Characteristics: development of self-concept attitudes, and general world of work
2. Exploration (Age 15 – 24) Trying out classes, work, hobbies; tentative choice and skill development
3. Establishment (Age 25 – 44) Entry-level skill building and stabilizing work experience
4. Maintenance (Age 45 –64) Continual adjustment process to improve position
5. Decline (Age 65+) Reduced output, preparation for retirement
People differ in their abilities and personalities, needs, values, interests, traits and self concepts
People are qualified, by virtue of their characteristics, for a number of occupations.
Each occupation requires a characteristic pattern of abilities and personality traits
Vocational preferences and competencies, the situations in which people live and work and their self-concepts change with time and experience.
5. This process of change may be summed up in a series of life stages:
Growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance and decline
The nature of the career pattern is determined by the individual’s parental socioeconomic level, mental ability, education, skills, personality characteristics, career maturity and by the opportunities to which he or she is exposed.
Success in coping with the demands of the environment depends on the individual’s career maturity.
Career maturity is a hypothetical construct.
Development through the life stages can be guided.
The process of career development is that of developing and implementing occupational self-concepts
The process of compromise is one of role playing and learning from feedback.
Work and life satisfactions depend on the extent to which the individual finds adequate outlets for abilities, needs, values, interests and personality traits.
The degree of satisfaction people attain from work is proportional to the degree to which they have been able to implement self-concepts.
Work and occupation provide a focus. If peripheral or nonexistent, leisure activities ad homemaking may be central.
Theory of Circumscription and Compromise
This theory is concerned with how career aspirations develop
Predicated on 4 basic assumptions:
Career development process begins in childhood
Career aspirations are attempts to implement one’s self-concept
Career satisfaction depends on the degree to which career in congruent with self-perceptions
People develop occupational stereotypes that guide them in the selection process
According to Gottfredson people develop cognitive maps of occupations that are organized along 3 dimensions:
Masculinity/femininity of the occupation
Prestige of the occupation
Fields of work
GOTTFREDSON’S VIEW OF FACTORS AFFECTING
Circumscription – Ideas about gender and prestige influence and limit career choices.
Compromise – Career choices are modified due to environmental and other factors. Individuals give up interests, prestige, and sex type when compromising.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE PROCESS OF COMPROMISE
Not knowing how behavior of individuals affects their access to occupational or educational information
Need to know which factors young people are most and least willing to give up when they can’t get their first choice
Not knowing enough about how to enter an occupation or get educational information
4 developmental stages:
Ages 3 to 5: Orientation of size and power
Ages 6 to 8: Orientation to sex roles
Ages 9 to 13: Orientation to social valuation
Ages 14+: Choices explored
Career Choice Theories Based in Learning Theory
Theory of Happenstance
Unplanned and unexpected events that have influenced the course of your life
Krumboltz’s approach to career counseling has considerable merit, particularly for disenfranchised and marginalized groups in our society.
Krumboltz identified 4 factors that influence individual development and ultimately the career decision-making process and choice:
Genetic endowment and special abilities
Environmental conditions and events
Task approach skills
HAPPENSTANCE LEARNING THEORY
FUNDAMENTAL GOALS FOR CAREER COUNSELING
1. To help clients learn to take actions to achieve more satisfying and career and personal lives – not to make one decision.
2. Career assessments are used to stimulate learning, not to match traits with occupational characteristics.
3. Clients learn to engage in exploratory actions to develop beneficial unplanned events.
4. Counseling goals are measured by the client’s accomplishments outside the counseling session.
APPLYING HAPPENSTANCE LEARNING
THEORY TO CAREER COUNSELING
Skills needed to deal with opportunities that arise by chance:
Curiosity – Explore opportunities resulting from chance events
Persistence – Learn when there are setbacks
Flexibility – Change attitude to deal with chance events
Optimism – Pursue new events; find that actions can pay off
Risk taking – Responding to new events
APPLYING HAPPENSTANCE LEARNING
THEORY TO CAREER COUNSELING
Four counseling steps:
1. Normalize planned happenstance in client’s background.
2. Help transform curiosity into learning and exploration opportunities.
3. Teach clients to produce desirable chance events.
4. Teach clients to overcome blocks to action.
Social Cognitive Perspective on Careers
Based in the sociocognitive theory of Albert Bandura
Central propositions of Social Cognitive Theory:
Interactions between people and their environments is highly dynamic
Career-related interests and behavior are influenced by several aspects of the person: gender, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, disabilities, behavior, self-efficacy beliefs, outcome expectations, goals and genetically determined characteristics.
Self-efficacy beliefs and expectations of outcomes interact directly to influence interest development.
Gender, race, physical health, disabilities, and environmental variables influence self-efficacy development, as well as expectations of outcomes and ultimately goals and performance.
Actual career choice and implementation are influence by a number of direct and indirect variables.
Performance in educational activities and occupations is the result of the interactions among ability, self-efficacy beliefs, outcome expectations and the goals that have been established.
Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) was first published by Lent, Brown and Hackett in 1994.
The results of reviews and research studies suggest that SCCT-based career counseling is useful with a variety of client groups ranging from adolescents to the disabled.
Self-efficacy and interests are linked and that interests can be developed or strengthened using modeling, encouragement and most powerfully performance enactments.
Lent and colleagues (2002) recommend 2 career counseling applications of SCCT.
The first begins with gathering traditional test data regarding needs, values and aptitudes similar to that proposed by Dawis (1996)
The second application involves the use of a modified vocational card sorting of occupations representative of the occupational structure.
Career Information Processing (CIP)Model of Career Choice
(Peterson and colleagues)
First presented in 1991
Revised in 2002
Relied on branch of learning theory that focuses on information processing
Understanding CIP Theory
Development of self knowledge involves the interpretation of past events and a cognitive reconstruction of those events.
The decision making process (deciding) can be subsumed under the acronym CASVE—communication, analysis, synthesis, valuing and execution.
Of greatest concern to career counselors and counseling psychologists is the client who is not a good decision maker. The Career Thoughts Inventory (CTI) was developed to diagnose various aspects of decision-making problems.
CTI has items relating to each compartment included in a pyramid:
Apex: Thinking About My Decisions
Mid-Level: Knowing How I Make Decisions
Base of Pyramid: Knowing Myself and Knowing My Options
Peterson and colleagues outline a 7 step model for career counseling
Conduct initial interview
Conduct preliminary assessment
Mutually define problem and analyze causes
Develop individual learning plan
Implement individual learning plan
Evaluate goal attainment
Contextualist and Chaos Theories and Their Applications: Young and Associates, Savickas and Bloch
Identify and describe the philosophical basis (postmodernism) of the theories in this chapter.
Articulate each theory presented in this chapter and describe its applications.
Basic Tenets of postmodern thinking:
Post modern thinking, often referred to as constructivist theories, are a relatively new addition to the theories of career choice
These theories depart radically from the assumptions of the theories based on positivist philosophy
Assumptions that underpin these theories:
Human behavior is nonlinear and thus cannot be studied objectively
Cause and effect relationships cannot be determined
Individuals cannot be studied outside of the context in which they function
Research data cannot be generalized to other people or groups
Research is not a value-free process
The stories (or narratives) that students tell are legitimate sources of data
Research is goal-free
Career counselors focus on the stories, use qualitative assessment procedures and help clients construct career goals
The self develops in continuous interaction between the individual and her or his contexts
Some postmodern theorists accept the idea of the objective self; others reject the idea
Young, Vallach and Collin (2002) A contextualist theory of career
Contextualism for these theorists is the process of weaving parts of one’s context (environment, reference groups, etc.) into the structure of self.
Career-related behaviors are goal-directed results of the individual’s construction of the context in which he or she functions.
Goal oriented series of behaviors
Young et al break action into 3 parts:
The internal processes that cannot be observed
The meaning or results as interpreted by the individuals and others who observe the action
Joint actions, such as those in career counseling, occur between people
Actions take place in a series of sequential steps that occur in a social contact from which the actor cannot separated.
Young and colleagues indicated that an essential aspect of career counseling is interpretation, which involves making sense of the client’s experiences.
Savickas’ Career Construction Theory (1995, 2002, 2013)
Incorporates portions of Holland’s and Super’s theories giving them a constructivist interpretation.
Acknowledges the influence of Alfred Adler
Believes that the construction of self occurs primarily through a reflective process
Savickas’ 5 step approach to career counseling
Chaos Theory of Career Development and Spirituality
Although chaos theory is a field of mathematics, psychologists and counselors may rely upon this theory to suggest approaches to dealing with families, work groups and organizations.
Assumptions of Chaos Theory
Small effects can cause large reactions
Complex open systems are unpredictable, primarily because we cannot know the initial conditions from which these systems evolved
Open systems are characterized by turbulence which adds to their unpredictable nature
Feedback about the system to the participants in a open system makes it more unpredictable.
Fractals are complex patterns that repeat themselves recursively—that is, the new pattern grows out of the old.
Bloch’s (2005) ideas to illustrate chaos theory –elaborated by listing the characteristics of adaptive entities (clients)
Have the ability to maintain themselves even though their shapes (life spaces) may change
Are open systems taking energy from the environment
Are parts of networks
Are parts of other entities
Are dynamic and ever-changing
Go through transitions
Behave in non-linear ways
React so that small changes may bring about large effects
Move through transitions
Chaos Theory and Career Counseling
Bloch and Richmond (2007) identify 7 themes that clients may manifest during the counseling process.
They are change, balance, energy, community, calling, harmony and unity
Brief Solution-Focused Career Counseling (BSFCC)
Relationship development – counselors may describe themselves as coaches or facilitators
Client presentation of issue
Search for exceptions
Client identifies personal strengths and past successes
In follow-up sessions, revisit the goal and develop a plan to move toward resolution
Ask second order questions
Gender as an Issue in Career Counseling
Issues that negatively impact the career development of women
Pregnancy – planned or unplanned
Inequities in salary, sexual harassment and various forms of discrimination
Time spent away from job because of child bearing
Willingness to sacrifice advancement so that a spouse can advance
Tradition and sex-role stereotyping may have persuaded women to stay away from STEM fields
This is information is helpful to remind career counselors of 2 types of obligations:
Make clients aware of what lies ahead in the work environment and help them develop coping skills
Assert ourselves to ameliorate oppressive forces in organizations
Sociological Perspective (Women)
Occupational sociologists have long recognized the influence of scholastic ability, family status and community variables in occupational success.
Since 1982 women earn more college degrees than men. In general, women are now better educated than men.
Family roles impact the career development of both men and women but have a greater impact on women than men
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Individuals
Barriers placed on these individuals by mainstream society
Coping with discrimination may result in lower self-esteem
Virtually ignored in the literature
Career counselors should begin with soul searching about their own beliefs
21 states plus the District of Columbia have laws that prohibit sexual orientation discrimination in both public and private jobs.
Pope and colleagues suggest that career counselors need to become advocates for the GLBT clients
Pope and colleagues point out that “coming out” in a 2-pronged process
First accepting one’s own sexuality
Second coming out to others
Career Counseling: Models and Methods
Most counselors tend to be eclectic borrowing from several theories
Brown believes that the age of the clients, nature of the clients served, the number of people to be served and the context (large group vs. individual), will influence your choice of an approach to career development
Spokane, Luchetta and Richwine (2002)
Does the approach allow for the development of the social support needed to move forward into the future?
Social support is important in shaping career aspirations and may be more important for clients from groups marginalized by societal bias
Does the approach allow individuals to gain information about themselves and their work environment?
When working with children, Gottfredson’s theory of circumscription and compromise should be incorporated to make children aware that they may have eliminated some occupations from their thinking prematurely based on sex-role stereotypes, social status and other factors.
Does the approach provide a framework for decision making?
Cognitive Information Processing Approach (Peterson, et al)
Does the approach allow for crystallizing and cognitive rehearsal of vocational aspirations?
Does the approach mobilize the individual to move ahead in a constructive manner?
A Values-Based, Multicultural Approach to Career Counseling and Advocacy
“In a diverse culture such as ours, all counselors, regardless of race, ethnicity, or worldview need a multicultural approach to career counseling” (Brown, p. 143)
Gysbers, Heppner and Johnson (2003) developed a taxonomy of tasks that occur within career counseling simultaneously with the process of developing a working alliance.
Identifying the presenting problem
Structuring the counseling relationship
Developing a counselor-client bond
Gathering information about the client including information about personal and contextual restraints
Evaluation of outcomes
Foundations of the values-based approach
3 aspects of culture
Universal dimension – refers to similarities among all groups
General cultural dimension – refers to the characteristics of a particular group and typically refers to ethnicity
Personal dimension – reflected in the individual’s worldview and is based on the extent to which the general cultural values and worldview have been adopted by the individual. The process by which this occurs in called enculturation.
Some leading researchers (Fouad and Kantamnemi, 2013) have concluded that cultural values may be a greater source of influence in the decision-making process than traditional career planning variables.
8 Steps of Values Based Multicultural Career Counseling (VBMCC)
Step 1: Assessing Cultural Variables
Step 2: Communication style and establishing the relationship
SOLER approach in counseling – non verbal behavior has different implications across cultures
5 basic cultural values: importance of self-control, time, activity, social relationships ad relationships in nature
Step 3: Selecting a Decision-Making model – who will make the decision?
Step 4: The identification of Career Issues (Assessment)
Pattern identification -focus on an activity from one life role (enjoyable or not)
Lifeline –ask clients to chart their future from present to retirement
Ask questions regarding limitations due to diverse background
Steps 5 and 6: The establishment of cultural appropriate goals and the selection of culturally appropriate interventions
Step 7: The implementation and evaluation of the interventions used
Step 8: Advocacy
Application of VBMCC to Group Career Counseling
Can be used in a group setting as long as counselors accommodate the cultural values and preferred communication style of clients and consider the impact of both of these variables on group dynamics.
Screening groups is the first step in the group leadership process.
The screening process is also the best time to determine whether group members have biases that will preclude them from interacting in a positive manner with other group members.
Career Counseling for Clients with Unique Concerns
Economically disadvantaged workers
Delayed entrance to workforce (retirees, military, ex-offenders)
Individuals with Disabilities
Over 80% of disabled people are either not in the workforce or are underemployed
Vocational rehabilitation has been referred to as the process of returning a disabled worker to a state of re-employability
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) passed initially in 1975 and last amended in 2004—school counselors/students in special education
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) prohibits discrimination against disabled clients in the hiring and worker-retention processes.
Other legislation – Workforce Investment Act and Ticket to Work program
Rehabilitation services are provided by a number of professions: psychology, counseling, medical, nursing, social work and others.
Kosciulek (2003) suggests that effective career counselors can empower clients with disabilities by fostering inclusion in the broader workforce and in society.
Career Counseling for Individuals with Disabilities
Process of career counseling should begin before the clients arrives in the counselor’s office by arranging the office to meet the physical, mental and psychological needs of the clients.
Traditional assessment devices may be useful with many disabled clients, but counselors should proceed with great caution and possibly conducted by a person with unique assessment skills.
Qualitative assessment devices may be more useful than traditional instruments.
Work samples and job tryouts may be much more significant indicators of the client’s potential than many assessment devices.
Effective career counselors can empower clients with disabilities by fostering inclusion in the broader workforce and in society.
Appropriate information and experiences such as work-based assessment, internships, job shadowing and sheltered workshop can do much to offset some of the experiential deficits of the disabled.
Millions of workers have been displaced throughout time due to technological innovations and the relocation of businesses outside the U.S
The U.S. economy has been undergoing its second structural change, the first being from agriculture and farming to manufacturing the second structural change began in the middle of the 20th century as an emphasis on manufacturing goods shifted to one based in offering services. Now we are in the information age.
Displaced workers may experience depression and loss of self-esteem.
Locating suitable educational and training programs that prepares displaced workers for employment often becomes an important priority.
Unemployed or new disadvantaged
Disadvantaged people need career development programs that address both short-term and long-term goals. Many career-related problems can be confronted with this 4 part program:
Access to basic adult education and specific vocational training
Personal and/or career counseling
Information about the world of work along with the skills to use this information in decision-making
Counselors should be prepared to deal with low self-esteem and depression.
Jacobs and Blustein (2008) suggested that clients may be benefit from mindfulness.
Atypical Time of Entrance to the Labor Force
Former Military Personnel
Former Military Personnel
Can be divided into 3 groups:
Those who serve 20 to 30 years before retiring from military duty and drawing a pension
Those who incur a service-related disability that prevents them from continuing in the military service
Those who leave after a relatively brief period (3 to 6 years)
Many military occupations have equivalent counterparts and can transfer with little difficulty from military to civilian jobs.
Those who elect not to reenlist or are not eligible to do so and had military assignments that provided no opportunity to develop transferable skills are most like to need career counseling.
The downside for some enlistees many need help learning how to make their own decisions as a result of having lived in a tightly structured environment.
Career Counseling for Former Military Personnel
Be prepared to deal with the same range of problems encountered with any client such as low self-esteem, lack of self-understanding, etc.
Veterans who have been in combat positions may also be suffering form PTSD or depression.
Suicide rates are on the rise and should be a concern for career counselors helping this group.
Psychological problems may be exacerbated by the veteran’s inability to secure employment.
Added complications may be encountered because of stressors in the family and simply returning to the routine of civilian life.
Stein-McCormick and her colleagues (2013) suggest that career counseling draw heavily on the Career Information Processing (CIP) model.
State and federal penal institutions vary widely in fundamental philosophy with respect to the goal of rehabilitation versus custodial care.
We must conclude that very few inmates acquire significant occupational training during their imprisonment.
Many prior offenders need extensive personal counseling before effective career counseling can be initiated.
California Log Model: Evidence-Based Rehabilitation for Offender Success:
Assess risk and target offenders who pose highest risk of reoffending
Assess need by examining factors that are the best predictors of reoffending
Develop a behavior-management program
Deliver cognitive behavioral programs that target offenders’ needs
Conduct periodic measures of progress toward the objectives
Prepare offender for reentry
Reintegrate offender in collaboration with community agency
Follow-up and collect outcome data
Based on a number of surveys and discussions the number of persons older than 60 will continue to increase (the first cohort of baby boomers turned 64 in 2010)
The recession that began in 2007 diminished the funds that many workers approaching retirement planned to use during their retirement years.
Many older retired workers have reentered or are attempting to reenter the labor force. Many of them have discovered that retirement is an unsatisfactory experience.
Changes in Social Security and Medicare are making it mandatory that more workers stay in the work force to protect their economic well-being.
The decision to stay in the workforce is not purely economic—desire to improve the quality of their lives and others, fellowship with other workers, social status, desire to make a contribution to society, maintaining a sense of self worth or simply having something to do are all factors that contribute to people staying in the workforce beyond retirement.
Career Counseling for Older Workers
Career counselors need to help clients dispel the myths surrounding older workers (health issues, inflexibility, less productive, diminished strength and learning capacity)
First task is to help older clients identify and eliminate some of their own beliefs about themselves.
Older workers may require assistance with the development of employability skills.
They need to develop interviewing skills that can help them counteract the misconceptions about older workers.
Assessment in Career Counseling and Development
Most researchers call these traits
Aptitude- defined as specific capacities and abilities required of an individual to learn or adequately perform a task or job duty
9 abilities identified by the O*Net development team
Likes or preferences or the things people enjoy
Super described 4 types of interests:
Expressed interests: verbal statements or claims of interest
Manifest interests: Interests exhibited through actions and participation
Inventoried interests: estimates of interests based on responses to a set of questions concerning likes and dislikes (e.g., the Strong Interest Inventory)
Tested interests: Interests revealed under controlled situations
Typically defined as the sum total of an individual’s beliefs, perceptions, emotions and attitudes
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator appears to be the personality inventory most often chosen by career centers on college campuses
MBTI yields 4 bipolar scales:
Contains 16 personality types
Assessment and Career Counseling
Has long been a part of the career counseling process
Arguments for and against the use of traditional and nontraditional assessment procedures falls along theoretical and philosophical lines
Hansen (2013) asserts use of traditional interest inventories can be of assistance in developing self-understanding and as one guide to occupational selection
Hansen suggests that assessment should provide a partial guide to decision making
Expected outcomes of Career Assessment
Develop a readiness to make a career decision
Develop confidence (self-efficacy) that she or he can make a wise decision
Develop self-awareness (interests, values, abilities, etc.)
Develop a future orientation
Assess clients decision-making approach
Assess client’s satisfaction wit the career counseling process and the career counselor’s effectiveness
Clinical, Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Assessment
occurs whenever a career counselor applies information gathered through training and experience to classify, diagnose or predict a client’s behavior or problem (Gregory, 2006)
is at best an adjunct for use with other types of assessment
Most familiar to clients because they have taken achievement battery tests as they’ve progressed through school
Bound by less rigid parameters
Scoring is more subjective
Tend to involve clients more actively than standardized or objective tests and inventories
Examples of qualitative assessment devices according to Goldman (1990) including card sorts, values clarification exercises, simulations such as the use of work samples and observations.
Qualitative Assessment and Constructivist Theory
Major difference between logical positivists (Holland) and constructivists (Savickas)
Positivists rely heavily on traditional measurement devices such as interest and personality inventories.
Postmodernists, such as constructivists, believe that each individual constructs his or her own unique reality. They use assessments designed to elicit the individual’s perspective.
Positivists search for fit and postmodernists search for meaning.
Examples of post modern assessment strategies: Career-O-Grams, role play, card sorts and genograms.
Qualitative and Objective Assessment Devices
Some assessment devices can serve as either qualitative or objective assessment devices although most are used as one or the other.
Self efficacy assessment measurements can serve in either capacity. Self efficacy has traditionally be measured by
First, identifying a task to be performed
Second, asking clients to estimate the degree of difficulty of the task and the extent of the confidence to perform the task
Third, estimating their performance in related situations
An interesting trends is assessment in the past decade is away from assessing self-efficacy qualitatively and toward quantitative measure of perceived self-efficacy.
Pairing self-efficacy data with information about interests provides a better predictor of occupational choice than using either assessment alone.
Values are learned or may row out of needs and are assumed to be a basic source of human motivation.
Super’s Work Values Inventory
Work Importance Locator and Work Importance Profiler
Life Values Inventory
Career Orientations Placement and Evaluation Survey
Hundreds of thousands of interest inventories are administered each year. Typically inventories that are used in career development programs to promote awareness use either the normative or the raw score approach.
Career Occupational Preference System; Self-Directed Search; Career Decision Making System; Strong Interest Inventory and Skills Confidence Inventory; Kuder Occupational Interest Survey; O*Net Interest Profiler
Research supports the continued use of these inventories.
Few personality inventories have captured the interest of career counselors perhaps because many were developed to measure abnormal behavior
Two examples: Myers Briggs Type Indicator; Sixteen P.F. Personal Career Development Profile For other options consult A Counselor’s Guide to Career Assessment Instruments (Wood & Hays, 2013)
Multiple Aptitude Test Batteries
These test measure what has already been learned which is an indicator of future performance. When taken as one indicator of potential aptitude, tests can be of assistance to clients attempting to make career plans or can simply be one way of promoting self-awareness.
Some examples: Differential Aptitude Test (DAT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); O*Net Ability Profiler
Have been developed to measure certain career development “problems”.
Some examples: Career Decision Scale; My Vocational Situation; Career Beliefs Inventory; Career Thoughts Inventory
Multi-Purpose Tests and Inventories
Measure more than one construct (e.g., interests and aptitudes)
They have been developed for specific purposes, typically for use with special populations.
Some examples: McCarron-Dial System; PESCO 2001/Online
Selecting Assessment Devices
Once the client’s needs and the purpose of the instrument are aligned, the technical characteristics of the instrument should be examined.
Reliability and validity issues and the representativeness of the norm groups deserve special consideration and are of the utmost importance in the selection of tests and inventories.
The ethical principles developed by the American Counseling Association (2005) and American Psychological Association (2010) should guide these considerations.
Counselors must be competent in the use of the any assessment device selected and the welfare of the client must be maintained.
Gender and Cultural bias
It is probably fair to say that tests and inventories are biased to come degree, but that most counselors attempt to use these products in a nondiscriminatory fashion.
Many of the bias issues can be summed up in a single word: language.
Other issues: the time needed to take the test or inventory; the cost; the reading level; the availability of computerized or hand scoring and the counselors preference are all factors to take into consideration when selecting tests or inventories.
Interpreting Test and Inventory Results
The interpretation of test results, along with selection and administration is one of the most important steps in the assessment process.
5 approaches to interpretation of quantitative assessment devices may be used:
Self-interpretation using materials provided by the publisher
Interactive approaches in which the client leads
Interactive approaches in which the counselor leads
Combinations of these approaches
Steps in the interpretation process:
Counselor becomes thoroughly familiar with all aspects of the instrument
Review the results of the tests and inventories prior to meeting with the client
Interpreting the results of tests and inventories is to consider the clients involved
General steps in the interpretation process (Prince and Heiser (2000)
Check to see if any unusual factors influenced the client during the administration of the test.
Check to see if the client was motivated during the test.
Provide an overview of the instrument to be interpreted.
Give a brief description of the scale and what they mean.
Check for understanding.
Explain how scores are presented (e.g., percentiles) and present scores.
Check for agreement with the results.
Interpret the scores or allow the client to make his or her own interpretation.
Compare assessment results with information gained qualitatively in the interview. Are the results consistent with real-life events?
Troubleshoot as necessary (flat, low interest inventory profile; too many options; conflicts in the family or group; bad news).
Complete interpretation with a summary of the results and by providing self-interpretation material that can be used for future reference by the client.
Using Information to Facilitate Career Development
Occupational and educational information is an essential ingredient in a comprehensive career development program and as a tool in career counseling.
Importance of occupational information
Approximately 22 percent of the occupations in this country require a bachelor’s degree.
Occupational information has a more extensive use than facilitating individual choice. It is an essential ingredient in a comprehensive career development program.
Occupational information is an invaluable tool for facilitating the career development of children, adolescents and adults.
Important uses by category:
To develop an awareness of the diversity of the occupational structure
To develop an awareness of their parents’ occupational and the nature of works in their community and beyond
To break down racial and sex-role stereotypes about people with disabilities
To develop an appreciation for the link between education and work
To develop economic awareness of the relationship of occupation to lifestyle
To sharpen their focus on personal identity as it relates to work
To help provide motivation to complete high school and enroll in post-secondary education and training programs
To begin reality testing by contacting and observing workers
To provide a basis for lifestyle planning
To eliminate stereotypes
To compare career opportunities in the provide and public sectors as well as in the military
To provide information about training opportunities that will enhance their current occupational performance
To provide information that allows them to evaluate their earnings related to others with similar jobs
To enhance skills that will allow them to conduct job searches across the nation and the world
To develop employability skills that will allow them to apply and interview for other jobs
To provide information about the rights workers who are disabled, older, female or minorities and how to lodge grievances when those rights are abridged
To identify part-time or full-time job opportunities if they decide to return to work
To help them use the skills they have developed as workers or as volunteers
To assist them to continue lifetime planning
Occupational and Labor Market Information
Occupational information includes educational, occupational and psychological facts related to work.
This type of information comes almost entirely from governmental sources and for the most part focuses on individual jobs.
Labor market information includes data about the occupational structure and the trends that shape it.
The first comprehensive database of jobs in the U.S., The Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT), was published in 1939. The information was developed using observational strategies known as job analysis. DOT was last published by the U.S. Department of Labor in 1991.
O*NET, the replacement for DOT, asked workers in the jobs to rate the nature of work they perform, the abilities needed to perform the job and the nature of the work environment.
The content model of O*NET contains 6 domains of information:
Worker characteristics—individuals’ enduring characteristics that influence their motivation and capacity to function in an occupation. Three types included in O*NET: (abilities; occupational values and interests; work styles).
Worker requirements—individuals’ attributes that influence occupational performance across a range of activities (basic skills; cross-functional skills; knowledge; education).
Experience requirements—pre-requisite experiences in various types of jobs, specific job preparation, on-the-job training and certification and licensure requirements.
Occupational requirements—job requirements established for individuals across domains of work: (generalized work activities; organizational context; work conditions).
Occupation-specific requirements (occupational knowledge; occupational skills; tasks; duties; machines, tools and equipment).
Occupation characteristics (labor market information; occupational outlook; wages
Examples of Using O*NET
Not developed for use in print form, but print copies of 3 of the online assessment inventories used in conjunction with O*NET are available for sale from U.S. Government Printing Office (the Ability Profiler, Interest Profiler and Work Importance Locator)
Students and adults may view summary reports that include the most important characteristics of the workers in various jobs and the requirements of a particular job.
Can be used by an employer who wishes to write job descriptions
High school or college students can either type in an occupation of interest in the search box or complete the profiles.
Rehabilitation counselors can search for occupational options based on physical characteristics.
Educational policy makers may look at the skills and knowledges to set standards for jobs in their institutions
Business leaders can look at the data on work and organizational context to ascertain information about high-performance workplaces.
Additional Occupational Resources
The Occupational Outlook Handbook
Is available in print and online
Provides predictions about the future of both occupational clusters and individual occupations
Also includes brief descriptions of the duties performed on the job, working conditions, average salary data and information of how to prepare for each job listed.
Information about the Military
The Department of Defense has developed a website that provides an overview of jobs available in all four branches of the military (http://www.military.com/join-armed-forces/military-jobs)
Computer Assisted Career Guidance Systems
Other Types of Occupational Information
Simulations – range from simple role-playing exercises (client assumes role of the worker )to the use of highly sophisticated programs (training of airline pilots)
Interviews with Experts
Work Experience Programs
Post-High School Opportunity Programs
Virtual and Brick and Mortar Career Centers
Design and Implementation
One-Stop Career Centers
In 1994, The Department of Labor Employment and Training Agency (DOLETA) responded to the criticism that their services overlapped and in some instances were difficult to access by developing the One-Stop Career Centers
They are located throughout the country in U.S. Employment Services offices as well as online.
The provide a full range of virtual resources and face-to-face services to job seekers
Brick and Mortar Career Centers
Have been established in community colleges, vocational technical schools four-year institutions, U.S. Employment Security offices, libraries and businesses.
Establishing a Career Center (CC)
Basic Criteria for Locating and Designing a CC
For people with visual disabilities (well lighted areas, tactile directions, signs and elevators, closed caption videos, alternatives to keyboard and mouse use, audio versions of graphics)
For people with hearing disabilities (rooms equipped with alternative emergency notices, available telecommunications devices for the deaf [TDD])
For people with mobility issues (wheelchair accessible entrances, registrations desks telephone and restrooms; easy access to buildings)
Ease of operation
Covers a variety of areas including the filing system used, storage and display of material, policies about checking out materials and nature of assistance provided to users of the CC
Renovating or developing a CC
The first step is to select a coordinator who understands technology and it application
Enlist the support of organization’s leadership
Establish a steering committee that can assist in setting objectives and designing the program that will be offered to client groups
Basic Technological Competencies
Use available software to develop web pages
Use web-based systems to provide outreach and education programs
Identify and evaluate web-based career decision-making programs and assessment packages that can be used in the CC
Help clients search for career-related information via the Internet
Help clients prepare and post online resumes and conduct virtual job interviews
Apply the legal standards and ethical codes that relate to career services on the Internet
Design social networking support groups that support job hunters
Design and deliver ethically and legally sound web-based career counseling programs
Evaluate the quality of a web-based career center
Evaluate the efficacy of Internet-based job listing and placement programs
Criteria for Collecting Materials
The group that will make major use of the materials
The nature of the community
The staff who will use the materials
How the materials will be used
Auxiliary local resources
Critical CC resources
Who Can Benefit from Self-Directed Online Offerings (virtual CC’s)?
CC’s need to establish procedure for screening potential users of web-based tools to ascertain who can take advantage of self-directed experiences and who cannot
Users should have the verbal ability necessary to use the systems in the CC
Students with goal instability or low self-efficacy may not benefit from the system and may need to engage in traditional career counseling
Poorly motivated clients are unlikely to benefit
Students (clients with low self-esteem or negative thinking) are unlikely to benefit
Anxiety and depression are barriers
Lack of information or misconceptions about web-based tools
People who have significant should not rely solely on web-based tools.
Using the Internet to Provide Career Counseling and Assessment
Two major factors dominate the decision of whether to offer web counseling
Meeting students and counselor comfort with the process
Several options available to counselors
May use email to correspond with their clients
May use chat rooms
Webcams open the possibility of “face-to-face”
Guidelines to guide practitioners who provide web counseling
Obtain parental permission when providing services to minors
Make sure information obtained from clients is stored in a secure place
Ensuring quality of services is the same quality provided in person
Getting permission from clients when releasing information
Making clients aware that technical difficulties may interrupt the service from time to time
Informing clients that miscommunication can occur when nonverbal cues are not available
Finding out whether clients can contact the service provider at times other than when services are being provided
Providing clients with hyperlinks to licensing boards and professional associations so that ethical complaints can be lodged if necessary
Maintaining a list of referral sources in the client’s locale in the event that the online counseling becomes inappropriate or nonproductive
Discussing cultural or language differences that might impact the counseling process
Utilizing Websites as Adjuncts to Web Counseling
Before linking the CC website to another website, a careful evaluation of the site should occur by answering the following questions:
When was the site last updated? Useful sites are updates regularly
Who developed and maintains the site? Can this person or agency be contacted via email to answer questions?
Are the sources of the information on the website reputable?
Is the reading level of the material appropriate for your clients?
Can the material on the website be accessed easily?
Preparing for Work
Phase 1 of Preparing for work begins with
Choosing a job that suits the individual’s talents
Followed by getting the best possible education or training for that job
Phase 2 of the path to employment
Requires the development of job acquisition skills
Locating, contacting, interviewing for and negotiating for the best offer
Occupational choice is the beginning
Accepting a job is a midpoint
Continuing to improve one’s skills and continuing in a lifelong search completes the process
Two tasks to perform as a career counselor
First: familiarize yourself with the educational opportunities that are available to your clients and teach them how to negotiate the system to prepare themselves for a high-quality occupation
Second: advocate for better schools, colleges and training programs for the adolescents and adults in this country.
TRAINING TIME – can be divided into 2 broad types: general education and specific vocational preparation.
General education includes all the general academic preparation that develops reasoning and adaptability, decision-making skills, the ability to understand and follow directions and the ability to work cooperatively with others.
Also includes the development of basic educational skills, such as math, language usage, reading and writing as well as foreign language skills.
Vocational preparation is training directed toward learning techniques, knowledge and skills need for a specific job and situation.
Every occupation requires some combination of these 2 types of preparation
High School and Preparation for Work
Some legislative efforts:
School to Work Opportunities Act of 1994
Individuals with Disabilities Act of 2004
The Goals 2000: Educate America Act
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
The National Skills Standards Act of 1994
Every Child Succeeds Act, December, 2015 (significantly shrinks the footprint of the federal government and hands over much of the decision-making power to states and school districts.)
High School and Preparation for Work (continued)
Vocational Education – formally established in the US during World War I
Work Experience Programs — most secondary schools include in their curricula some opportunities for students to combine study in the classroom with experience in an employment situation
Academies – developed in response to initiatives from business and industry. One of the best known was developed Cisco. Health science academies have also been developed that provide specific vocational preparation and introduce students to the broad array of health science occupations.
Outside the Classroom No Diploma Required
About 20% of students fail to graduate according to the U.S. Department of Education (2013). This group is usually referred to as dropouts but might more importantly be labeled “pushouts” or “lostouts” .
Two possibilities are available for this group: on-the-job training and skill acquisition through programs such as Job Training Partnership Act.
Outside the Classroom No Diploma Required (cont’d)
Job Training Partnership Act as Amended by STWOA of 1994—authorizes a wide range of training activities aimed at economically disadvantaged youth and adults to prepare them for unsubsidized employment. This act authorizes state-level officials to designate “service delivery areas”
Job Corps – no cost, residential program with more than 120 centers throughout the U.S.
Outside the Classroom High School Diploma Preferred or Required
Date back to the Middle Ages
National Apprenticeship Program was established by Congress in 1937 with the support of both labor and management organizations. The agency is now known as the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training (BAT).
A basic tenet of the BAT has been that employers and employees should jointly develop programs for employment and training of apprentices to their mutual satisfaction.
They have established certain basic standards by which an apprenticeship program functions.
Nearly 35,000 programs are registered for apprenticeships in more than 1,000 occupations.
Post Secondary Schools: Associate’s Degrees or Certificates
Trade, Vocational and Technical Schools
Community Colleges and Junior Colleges
Offer full and part time programs that include:
Traditional college related program for students who plan to transfer to 4 year colleges
A technical, terminal program
Short courses needed locally for retraining
Adult basic education program
Colleges and Universities
Harvard College was the first private college to open its doors in the U.S. and University of North Carolina was the first public university to admit students.
There are currently tens of thousands of colleges and universities that offer a vast array of academic possibilities ranging from preparing students for specific careers to some that offer more general courses of study.
Factors to Consider When Choosing a College
Type and compatibility of program
Type of school
Type of Student Body
Expenses and Financial Aid
Facilitating the Global Job Search in a Digital Age
Individuals need a variety of traditional and contemporary job hunting skills if they are to find suitable employment
The job search is fraught with anxiety for job seekers
Career development specialists engaged in facilitating the job search must attend to psychological issues and the emotional state of the job seeker.
The task of developing the job-hunting skills needed in today’s labor market is daunting.
Ideas of how to get assistance:
One Stop Career Center websites (PA Career Link); state level Department of Labor sites and some proprietary sites as well as the Riley Guide
Job seekers need to decide on the best means of developing the skills needed to be successful in the job hunt—self help guides, internet publications and tips, classes or small groups
Some studies suggest that employability skills training cannot overcome other obstacles to employment such as substance abuse or inadequate preparation for the job.
Today’s job hunters need to locate jobs and prequalify themselves before submitting applications or resumes.
Another variable that is extremely critical is social support.
Job Search Clubs – provide support and encouragement but also help members improve their interview skills. Local labor market information is particularly useful to job clubs.
The process of placing people with mental and physical disabilities is essentially the same; however the specifics of the process vary considerably.
Executing the Job Search
Taking an Inventory of Self and Skills—take an inventory and establish what one has for sale.
Step 2: Identifying and Investigating the Job Market—First identify a geographic area and think about access to transportation, how long and far one is willing to travel and from work and if personal or family barriers exist.
Second identify information resources within that specified territory—the “hidden job market” – become known through networking activities and are never advertised unless they can’t be filled from within the company.
Step 3: Developing Employability Skills. The top 10 needs of job seekers, according to their own ratings are: (1) selling yourself, (2) preparing for a typical interview, (3) writing a resume, (4) self-assessment skills, (5) salary information, (6) budgeting until a job is found, (7) legal and illegal questions that may be posed by interviewers, (8) understanding the career-decision process, (9) how to use skills acquired in past jobs in a new occupation and (10) information about entry-level requirements of various jobs and finally technology skills needed.
Job Placement Services
Come in many forms ranging from virtual placement services (Monster, Indeed) to brick and mortar public or private agencies such as U.S. Employment Service offices.
Outplacement services – assist displaced workers in transitioning to the next job.
Public Employment Services – every state has a state employment security agency (SESA). The usually provide:
Service to Veterans
Service to applicants with disabilities
Collection of Labor Market Information
Cooperation with Community Agencies
Private Employment Agencies
Secondary and Postsecondary School-Placement Services
On-Line Job Placement Centers
Designing and Implementing Comprehensive K to 12 Career Development Programs within the Framework of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) National Model
Marland (1974) describes 8 elements of career education identified by the Center for Research in Vocational Education at Ohio State University:
Decision Making Skills
Skill Awareness and Beginning Competence
A Brief History
By the mid-1980’s the remnants of the career education movement in the 1970’s had been swept from U.S. schools by the back-to-basics educational movement.
However the failure of career education in elementary school cannot be laid solely at the doorstep of the back-to-basics movement. Many mistakes were made in the design and implementation of those programs, including the following:
They were funded with monies external to the school district
They added to the workload of an already overloaded group—teachers
The term career education was negatively associated with vocational education by many middle-class parents who were concerned that their children might be diverted from the college-preparatory curriculum
Local political support among educators, parents and the business community was not carefully developed in many instances.
The ASCA* Model was originally published is 2003, revised in 2005 and 2008
Includes the national standards and describes the process for establishing a comprehensive school counseling program among many other components
*American School Counselor Association
The ASCA National Model contains 4 components:
Foundation—serves as the basis for the delivery and management systems
Delivery systems involved those strategies used by school counselors to deliver services to students and others
Accountability consists of the evaluation of the effectiveness of the delivery systems and the personnel and the dissemination of the data in the form of results reports to support the effectiveness of the program
Management system includes when, why and on whose authority various aspects of the program are implemented
Standards for school counseling programs were identified that are related to the 3 content areas
Standard A – Students will acquire the skills to investigate the world of work in relation to knowledge of self and to make informed career decisions: develop career awareness and develop employment readiness
Standard B – Students will employ strategies to achieve future career goals with success and satisfaction: acquire career information and identify career goals
Standard C – Students will understand the relationship between personal qualities, education, training and the world of work: acquire knowledge to achieve career goals and apply skills to achieve career goals
It is worth noting that the competencies listed are not broken down by grade level; the competencies to be developed at each grade level must be determined by the planning committee.
The Process of Program Development
Gaining Administration Support
Establishing preconditions – to be successful programs must have the staff, budget, facilities, materials, supplies and appropriate technology
Forming a planning committee—responsibilities include writing a mission statement, drafting a philosophy for the program, conducting a needs assessment, selecting the competencies that will be developed based on the needs assessment and planning the program.
Conducting a needs assessment—to determine what type of program best serves the students, it is imperative that full understanding of the characteristics of students and their families be developed
Writing goals and objectives and establishing criteria for success
Designing the Career Development Program
ADDRESSING THE ISSUE: PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION
Budgeting—money available to underwrite the career development rarely provides all of the resources needed. School counselors need to learn to take advantage of the community and free resources.
Selecting a Management System—regardless of who is involved on the management team, the overall approach to managing the program should be a collaborative one.
Planning and Implementing the Guidance Curriculum—a comprehensive program is aimed at developing academic and personal social competencies.
PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING INDIVIDUAL STUDENT PLANNING
Each student should have an individualized career plan which includes career and educational goals. This plan should begin no later than the 8th grade and should culminate when the student graduates from high school or leaves high school prior to graduation.
PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING RESPONSIVE SERVICES
Responsiveness include consultation, individual and small-group counseling, crisis counseling and response to crises, referral and peer facilitation.
The two that require the greatest attention for planning career development programs are consultation and individual and group counseling.
PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING EVALUATION AND ACCOUNTABILITY
Evaluation is the process by which the impact of the career development program on student development and behavior is assessed and is, therefore, the core element of the accountability effort.
Look at the overall impact of the program
However, the evaluation of the impact of an entire program is a laborious task and may not provide the data needed for program improvement as it might be difficult to establish which aspect of the program actually produce the observed results.
PROGRAMMING PLANNING TIPS
Should probably be organized around a theme that parallels what is used in social studies or other curricular areas. Themes could be enhanced by speakers or field trips; starting and operating a business in school; career days. The most important tip for implementing programs is that it should be fun.
Along with increasing students’ awareness of choices, increasing their self-awareness and enhancing their goal setting, planning and decision-making ability become important.
Organizing a theme around Holland’s RIASEC model is a good approach. Provide Career Classes and involve parents if appropriate
The approaches listed above can be adapted to high school
Pay particular attention to students with disabilities
Target minority students to assist with occupational advice and how it relates to earnings
Target multi-potential students (gifted)
Involve community resources—local service clubs, local labor union reps, social agencies, churches, libraries.
Career Development in Postsecondary Education Institutions
Students at all levels of higher education need the services of a strong career development program.
Getting an education is important; getting an education that prepares you for a satisfactory occupation is much more important.
Career programs in postsecondary institutions need to be a high priority to assure that the investment of time and money by students is justified.
One of the primary reasons for pursuing a college education is to train for a career.
Georgetown University Center on Education and The Workforce
We are an independent, nonprofit research and policy institute that studies the link between education, career qualifications, and workforce demands.
U.S. Department of Labor- Earnings: https:// www.bls.gov/cps/earnings.htm
The stereotype of community college and college students is that they are 18 to 22 years old and pursuing their first postsecondary experience. However, the current profile is much different.
More than half of the student population is over 25, women outnumber men and nearly half of all students are enrolled in community college programs.
The diversity of college students increasingly reflects the diversity of our society.
Several authors have indicated that many students enrolled in postsecondary institutions need specialized career development services.
However, students share common needs and the career development services
Available should include some of all of the following:
Career and self-awareness activities
Exploration of interests, values, goals and decisions
Realities of the job market and future trends
Practical, accurate information about careers
Workshops that deal with special needs such as risk taking, resume development, interviewing and so forth
An academic advising system that makes it possible for students to get the assistance they need in academic planning
3 General Types of Institutions
Vocational-technical schools – extensions of high school vocational education programs and provide skills training in a variety of careers ranging from semiskilled to professional
Community Colleges – often have a vocational component and are coordinated with four year programs for transfers. Students select community colleges for financial reasons, because of the need for remedial study or want to explore whether post-high school study is actually something they want to pursue.
Four year colleges are very diverse— from high prestigious to predominately female, historically African American and Galludet (focusing on students with hearing impairments)
Resources, philosophy, mission, size and characteristics of the student body, curriculum offerings, location and a variety of other factors influence the career development program.
CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS
Many issues confront career development specialists as they plan programs for postsecondary institutions—among these are philosophical issues
Emphasize counseling or placement
Send clients out on their own to collect information
Focus students on “vocational” aspects of their training
Involve significant others (such as parents) in career planning process
Emphasize risk taking or security in the career planning process
Competencies and Guidelines
Adults Need To
Identify positive self-images
Be able to identify career information and use that information to make informed career decisions
Engage in lifelong learning
Prepare for transitions in their careers
Understand the interaction of career and other life roles
Understand the changing roles of men and women in our society
Understand the interrelationships that exist between the needs of society and the world of work
Understanding the nature of the global economy and its impact on jobs
Technological competencies needed to access occupational information, self-assessment opportunities and finding and securing jobs.
Developing the Program
Florida State University has been at the forefront in thinking about the design and implementation of career programs on college campuses
Program design that Sampson suggests
Evaluate current career resources, service tools and services
Select, adapt, revise and develop improved career resources, service tools and services
Integrate improved career resources, service tools and services into existing program
Train staff to use new service tools and approaches
Conduct a pilot test of the new program
If applicable, train staff in all career centers and schools
Conduct ongoing evaluation and continue accountability
At the end of each step, communicate with stakeholders
The actual competencies to be developed in the program, the processes to be used and the specific activities depend on the overall philosophy and nature of the school itself.
Sampson breaks career services into 3 broad categories:
self help (self administered assessments
brief staff assisted (workshops, short-term group counseling and large sections of career courses)
individual case managed
Career Program Activities
Brief Activities: Websites, Advising, Major Fairs, Career Courses, Workshops and Seminars, Self-Directed, Information Dispensation
Individualized Case-Managed Activities: Internships, Consultation, Career Counseling, Peer Counseling Programs
It’s meant to answer two questions
Did we accomplish the objectives that we set for? and
Which activities contributed to their development
However, career development programs may have other objectives that deal with broader institutional concerns.
Some of these objectives might be to increase the graduation rate, increase satisfaction with the advising program, increase the satisfaction with the internship program, etc.
These objectives would be evaluated using a variety of techniques, such as follow-up studies and qualitative strategies such as focus groups.
Career Counselors in Private Practice: Counseling, Coaching and Consulting
Unlike mental health counseling, which is often at least partially paid for by health insurance, the client must underwrite the entire cost of career counseling unless there is a coexisting mental health problem.
Private Practice is about offering career development services to earn money.
Most career development practitioners work in educational or governmental agencies for a salary. Career Counselors who choose private practice do so for a variety reasons including the opportunity to manage their own careers and increase their earnings.
According to estimates of leaders in the field of career counseling and vocational psychology, the demand for career counseling is at an all time high.
Qualifications—all states have licensure, certifications and/or registry laws that regulate the practice of psychologists and counselors. Some states have laws that limit both the title and practice. Some states have included career counseling as a service that should be offered only by licensed professionals counselor
Guidelines for consumers: caveat emptor or “let the consumer beware” since the practice of career counseling is not sufficiently regulated. The National Career Development Association (NCDA) and the Society of Vocational Psychologists are at the forefront of establishing professional standards for private practitioners and in consumer protection.
Credentials: Career counselors should have earned graduate degrees. They should have knowledge about career development, assessment, occupational information, employability skills, the integration of life roles and stresses of working, job loss and/or career transitions.
Ethics: licensed career counselors follow the ethical codes adopted by the APA, the American Counseling Association or other professional organizations.
Career Coaching—solution-oriented approach which involves working with clients to see what concrete steps they can take to achieve career objectives. It is not therapy and should not address mental health problems.
Establishing a Private Practice
Several questions must be answered prior to establishing a practice:
What skills do I have that I can market?
Who are the people who might purchase my services, my target audience?
How will I reach my target audience—that is, what is my marketing plan?
Where will the services be offered?
Before moving on, work in pairs to make a list of services that a private practitioner might offer the public.
Types of Services that can be offered:
Career counseling with individuals and groups
Development of other employability skills
Career/life-role integration counseling
Work adjustment counseling
Vocational appraisal services
Location of the office
Some use portions of their residences for their office. This eliminates commuting, rental fees, janitorial services, etc. Might not work in some areas due to zoning restrictions.
Image – an office located in a professional office building helps project the professional image that many career counselors desire.
Once the decision has been made and practice is open, customers are wanted and advertising is key—a well placed article in the business section of the local newspaper; a well-designed website is a must; provide free speeches, workshops, and seminars; social media; networking by attending and participating in local professional meetings.
Marketing—advertising; networking; direct solicitation by mail or telephone; developing a newsletter, etc. Marketing never stops.
Hiring a knowledgeable accountant may be the first step in setting up a private practice.
Utilize a software package to budget expenses and maintain records.
Keep careful logs of expenses. Entertainment, travel, meals, equipment purchases, furniture, malpractice insurance and continuing education are all legitimate expenses.
Fees and Billing
Have established fees and allow clients to choose the services they need, terminate whenever they deem it appropriate and pay for only those services that have been provided.
Look at the fees of competitors. Charge less for group counseling than for individual counseling. Fees may range from $75 to $200 an hour.
Consider how to collect fees—credit card, check
Other Business Details
Other details include establishing a record keeping system, considering the possibility of using an answering service (versus an answering machine), hiring assistants and/or clerical workers, choosing an appropriate liability insurance policy and selecting an accountant.
Trends in the Labor Market, Factors That Shape Them and Issues for Decision Makers
The workplace in this country has always been in a state of flux primarily because of technological advances and changes in economic conditions
Some changes that have occurred and will occur in the future have been quite sudden and dramatic (9/11 and Katrina in 2005)
Most change occurs far more gradually as result of economic cycles, the impact of wage differentials in the U.S. and the rest of the world on business decisions, the impact of technology and business consolidations
The Impact of Technology
The first industry to experience rapid and dramatic job change was agriculture
Other occupations that are expected to decline are, for example: postal clerks, sorters; sewing machine operators, textile cutting and weaving machine operators; meter readers; word processors; door to door sales to name a few
Global economy and long-term job trends
75 years ago the goods and services produced in the U.S. were consumed in this country
Although the U.S. tends to import more than it exports, agricultural products, manufactured goods and other goods and services produced in this country are sold abroad
Most corporations in this country are multinational which means they not only do business with other countries but also have investments and operations abroad
The U.S. has also been the beneficiary of foreign business leaders’ decisions to locate a portion of their businesses in this country.
The economies of the world are linked!
Other economic factors: current interest rates are at historic lows; national debt has passed the $20 trillion mark; value of the dollar in the currency exchange market also influences job growth
Baby boomers, birthrates, influx of minority works into the labor, illegal workers
Size of Government
Local, state and national government employ millions of people. Arguments for and against downsizing at all levels abound
Cause of Short-Term Trends
Various types of calamities either caused by humans or natural disasters
New directions in fashion, recreation and other activities can also alter the occupational structure by creating new demands or reducing old ones
Seasonal variations are also influential
Projections for the Future
The Bureau of Labor Statistics regularly issues forecasts regarding the various aspects of the labor force and provides up-to-date information
Holistic Approach to Life Planning
Sunny Hansen has developed a model (the Integrative Life Planning approach) that focuses on ways to make society a better place while helping individuals with their career concerns
Six critical life tasks identified by Hansen
Task 1 – Finding work that needs doing in changing global contexts
Task 2 – Weaving our lives into a meaningful whole
Task 3– Connecting family and work